## Foundation

**Number and Algebra**

Students connect number names and numerals with sets of up to 20 elements, estimate the size of these sets, and use counting strategies to solve problems that involve comparing, combining and separating these sets. They match individual objects with counting sequences up to and back from 20. Students order the first 10 elements of a set. They represent, continue and create simple patterns.

**Measurement and Geometry**

Students identify measurement attributes in practical situations and compare lengths, masses and capacities of familiar objects. They order events, explain their duration, and match days of the week to familiar events. Students identify simple shapes in their environment and sort shapes by their common and distinctive features. They use simple statements and gestures to describe location.

**Statistics and Probability**

Students sort familiar categorical data into sets and use these to answer yes/no questions and make simple true/false statements about the data.

## Year 1

**Number and Algebra**

Students count to and from 100 and locate these numbers on a number line. They partition numbers using place value and carry out simple additions and subtractions, using counting strategies. Students recognise Australian coins according to their value. They identify representations of one half. Students describe number sequences resulting from skip counting by 2s, 5s and 10s. They continue simple patterns involving numbers and objects with and without the use of digital technology.

**Measurement and Geometry**

Students use informal units of measurement to order objects based on length, mass and capacity. They tell time to the half-hour and explain time durations. Students describe two-dimensional shapes and three-dimensional objects. They use the language of distance and direction to move from place to place.

**Statistics and Probability**

Students describe data displays. They ask questions to collect data and draw simple data displays. Students classify outcomes of simple familiar events.

## Year 2

**Number and Algebra**

Students count to and from, and order numbers up to 1000. They perform simple addition and subtraction calculations, using a range of strategies. They find the total value of simple collections of Australian notes and coins. Students represent multiplication and division by grouping into sets and divide collections and shapes into halves, quarters and eighths. They recognise increasing and decreasing number sequences involving 2s, 3s, 5s and 10s, identify the missing element in a number sequence, and use digital technology to produce sequences by constant addition.

**Measurement and Geometry**

Students order shapes and objects, using informal units for a range of measures. They tell time to the quarter hour and use a calendar to identify the date, days, weeks and months included in seasons and other events. Students draw two-dimensional shapes, specify their features and explain the effects of one-step transformations. They recognise the features of three-dimensional objects. They interpret simple maps of familiar locations.

**Statistics and Probability**

Students collect data from relevant questions to create lists, tables and picture graphs with and without the use of digital technology. They interpret data in context. Students use everyday language to describe outcomes of familiar events.

## Year 3

**Number and Algebra**

Students count and order numbers to and from 10 000. They recognise the connection between addition and subtraction, and solve problems using efficient strategies for multiplication with and without the use of digital technology. Students recall addition and multiplication facts for single-digit numbers. They represent money values in various ways and correctly count out change from financial transactions. Students model and represent unit fractions for halves, thirds, quarters, fifths and eighths, and multiples of these up to one. They classify numbers as either odd or even, continue number patterns involving addition or subtraction, and explore simple number sequences based on multiples.

**Measurement and Geometry**

Students use metric units for length, area, mass and capacity. They tell time to the nearest minute. Students identify symmetry in natural and constructed environments. They use angle size as a measure of turn in real situations and make models of three-dimensional objects. Students match positions on maps with given information and create simple maps.

**Statistics and Probability**

Students carry out simple data investigations for categorical variables. They interpret and compare data displays. Students conduct chance experiments, list possible outcomes and recognise variations in results.

## Year 4

**Number and Algebra**

Students recall multiplication facts to 10 x 10 and related division facts. They choose appropriate strategies for calculations involving multiplication and division, with and without the use of digital technology, and estimate answers accurately enough for the context. Students solve simple purchasing problems with and without the use of digital technology. They locate familiar fractions on a number line, recognise common equivalent fractions in familiar contexts and make connections between fractions and decimal notations up to two decimal places. Students identify unknown quantities in number sentences. They use the properties of odd and even numbers and describe number patterns resulting from multiplication. Students continue number sequences involving multiples of single-digit numbers and unit fractions, and locate them on a number line.

**Measurement and Geometry**

Students compare areas of regular and irregular shapes, using informal units. They solve problems involving time duration. Students use scaled instruments to measure length, angle, area, mass, capacity and temperature of shapes and objects. They convert between units of time. Students create symmetrical simple and composite shapes and patterns, with and without the use of digital technology. They classify angles in relation to a right angle. Students interpret information contained in maps.

**Statistics and Probability**

Students describe different methods for data collection and representation, and evaluate their effectiveness. They construct data displays from given or collected data, with and without the use of digital technology. Students list the probabilities of everyday events. They identify dependent and independent events.

## Year 5

**Number and Algebra**

Students solve simple problems involving the four operations using a range of strategies including digital technology. They estimate to check the reasonableness of answers and approximate answers by rounding. Students identify and describe factors and multiples. They explain plans for simple budgets. Students order decimals and unit fractions and locate them on a number line. Students add and subtract fractions with the same denominator. They find unknown quantities in number sentences and continue patterns by adding or subtracting fractions and decimals.

**Measurement and Geometry**

Students use appropriate units of measurement for length, area, volume, capacity and mass, and calculate perimeter and area of rectangles and volume, and capacity of rectangular prisms. They convert between 12 and 24-hour time. Students use a grid reference system to locate landmarks. They estimate angles, and use protractors and digital technology to construct and measure angles. Students connect three-dimensional objects with their two-dimensional representations. They describe transformations of two-dimensional shapes and identify line and rotational symmetry.

**Statistics and Probability**

Students pose questions to gather data and construct various displays appropriate for the data, with and without the use of digital technology. They compare and interpret different data sets. Students list outcomes of chance experiments with equally likely outcomes and assign probabilities as a number from 0 to 1.

## Year 6

**Number and Algebra**

Students recognise the properties of prime, composite, square and triangular numbers and determine sets of these numbers. They solve problems that involve all four operations with whole numbers and describe the use of integers in everyday contexts. Students locate fractions and integers on a number line and connect fractions, decimals and percentages as different representations of the same number. They solve problems involving the addition and subtraction of related fractions. Students calculate a simple fraction of a quantity and calculate common percentage discounts on sale items, with and without the use of digital technology. They make connections between the powers of 10 and the multiplication and division of decimals. Students add, subtract and multiply decimals and divide decimals where the result is rational. Students write number sentences using brackets and order of operations, and specify rules used to generate sequences involving whole numbers, fractions and decimals. They use ordered pairs of integers to represent coordinates of points and locate a point in any one of the four quadrants on the Cartesian plane.

**Measurement and Geometry**

Students relate decimals to the metric system and choose appropriate units of measurement to perform a calculation. They solve problems involving time, length and area, and make connections between capacity and volume. Students interpret a variety of everyday timetables. They solve problems using the properties of angles and investigate simple combinations of transformations in the plane, with and without the use of digital technology. Students construct simple prisms and pyramids.

**Statistics and Probability**

Students interpret and compare a variety of data displays, including displays for two categorical variables. They analyse and evaluate data from secondary sources. Students compare observed and expected frequencies of events, including those where outcomes of trials are generated with the use of digital technology. They specify, list and communicate probabilities of events using simple ratios, fractions, decimals and percentages.

## Year 7

**Number and Algebra**

Students solve problems involving the order, addition and subtraction of integers. They make the connections between whole numbers and index notation and the relationship between perfect squares and square roots. They solve problems involving all four operations with fractions, decimals, percentages and their equivalences, and express fractions in their simplest form. Students compare the cost of items to make financial decisions, with and without the use of digital technology. They make simple estimates to judge the reasonableness of results. Students use variables to represent arbitrary numbers and connect the laws and properties of number to algebra and substitute numbers into algebraic expressions. They assign ordered pairs to given points on the Cartesian plane and interpret and analyse graphs of relations from real data. Students develop simple linear models for situations, make predictions based on these models, solve related equations and check their solutions.

**Measurement and Geometry**

Students use formulas for the area and perimeter of rectangles. They classify triangles and quadrilaterals and represent transformations of these shapes on the Cartesian plane, with and without the use of digital technology. Students name the types of angles formed by transversals crossing parallel lines and solve simple numerical problems involving these lines and angles. They describe different views of three-dimensional objects, and use models, sketches and digital technology to represent these views. Students calculate volumes of rectangular prisms.

**Statistics and Probability**

Students identify issues involving the collection of discrete and continuous data from primary and secondary sources. They construct stem-and-leaf plots and dot-plots. Students identify or calculate mean, mode, median and range for data sets, using digital technology for larger data sets. They describe the relationship between the median and mean in data displays. Students determine the sample space for simple experiments with equally likely outcomes, and assign probabilities outcomes.

## Year 8

**Number and Algebra**

Students use efficient mental and written strategies to make estimates and carry out the four operations with integers, and apply the index laws to whole numbers. They identify and describe rational and irrational numbers in context. Students estimate answers and solve everyday problems involving profit and loss rates, ratios and percentages, with and without the use of digital technology. They simplify a variety of algebraic expressions and connect expansion and factorisation of linear expressions. Students solve linear equations and graph linear relationships on the Cartesian plane.

**Measurement and Geometry**

Students convert between units of measurement for area and for volume. They find the perimeter and area of parallelograms, rhombuses and kites. Students name the features of circles, calculate circumference and area, and solve problems relating to the volume of prisms. They make sense of time duration in real applications, including the use of 24-hour time. Students identify conditions for the congruence of triangles and deduce the properties of quadrilaterals. They use tools, including digital technology, to construct congruent shapes.

**Statistics and Probability**

Students explain issues related to the collection of sample data and discuss the effect of outliers on means and medians of the data. They use various approaches, including the use of digital technology, to generate simple random samples from a population. Students model situations with Venn diagrams and two-way tables and explain the use of ‘not’, ‘and’ and ‘or’. Students choose appropriate language to describe events and experiments. They determine complementary events and calculate the sum of probabilities.

## Year 9

**Number and Algebra**

Students apply the index laws using integer indices to variables and numbers, express numbers in scientific notation, solve problems involving very small and very large numbers, and check the order of magnitude of calculations. They solve problems involving simple interest. Students use the distributive law to expand algebraic expressions, including binomial expressions, and simplify a range of algebraic expressions. They find the distance between two points on the Cartesian plane and the gradient and midpoint of a line segment using a range of strategies including the use of digital technology. Students sketch and draw linear and non-linear relations, solve simple related equations and explain the relationship between the graphical and symbolic forms, with and without the use of digital technology.

**Measurement and Geometry**

Students solve measurement problems involving perimeter and area of composite shapes, surface area and volume of rectangular prisms and cylinders, with and without the use of digital technology. They relate three-dimensional objects to two-dimensional representations. Students explain similarity of triangles, interpret ratios and scale factors in similar figures, and apply Pythagoras’s theorem and trigonometry to solve problems involving angles and lengths in right-angled triangles.

**Statistics and Probability**

Students compare techniques for collecting data from primary and secondary sources, and identify questions and issues involving different data types. They construct histograms and back-to-back stem-and-leaf plots with and without the use of digital technology. Students identify mean and median in skewed, symmetric and bi-modal displays and use these to describe and interpret the distribution of the data. They calculate relative frequencies to estimate probabilities. Students list outcomes for two-step experiments and assign probabilities for those outcomes and related events.

## Year 10

**Number and Algebra**

Students recognise the connection between simple and compound interest. They solve problems involving linear equations and inequalities, quadratic equations and pairs of simultaneous linear equations and related graphs, with and without the use of digital technology. Students substitute into formulas, find unknown values, manipulate linear algebraic expressions, expand binomial expressions and factorise monic and simple non-monic quadratic expressions, with and without the use of digital technology. They represent linear, quadratic and exponential functions numerically, graphically and algebraically, and use them to model situations and solve practical problems.

**Measurement and Geometry**

Students solve and explain surface area and volume problems relating to composite solids. They use parallel and perpendicular lines, angle and triangle properties, similarity, trigonometry and congruence to solve practical problems and develop proofs involving lengths, angles and areas in plane shapes. They use digital technology to construct and manipulate geometric shapes and objects, and explore symmetry and pattern in two dimensions.

**Statistics and Probability**

Students compare univariate data sets by referring to summary statistics and the shape of their displays. They describe bivariate data where the independent variable is time and use scatter-plots generated by digital technology to investigate relationships between two continuous variables. Students evaluate the use of statistics in the media. They list outcomes for multi-step chance experiments involving independent and dependent events, and assign probabilities for these experiments.