**Chance**

**Australian National Curriculum learning map**

- Identify outcomes of familiar events involving chance and describe them using everyday language such as ‘will happen’, ‘won’t happen’ or ‘might happen’
- Identify practical activities and everyday events that involve chance.
- Describe outcomes as ‘likely’ or ‘unlikely’ and identify some events as ‘certain’ or ‘impossible’
- Conduct chance experiments, identify and describe possible outcomes and recognise variation in results
- Describe possible everyday events and order their chances of occurring
- Identify everyday events where one cannot happen if the other happens
- Identify events where the chance of one will not be affected by the occurrence of the other
- List outcomes of chance experiments involving equally likely outcomes and represent probabilities of those outcomes using fractions
- Recognise that probabilities range from 0 to 1
- Describe probabilities using fractions, decimals and percentages
- Conduct chance experiments with both small and large numbers of trials using appropriate digital technologies
- Compare observed frequencies across experiments with expected frequencies
- Construct sample spaces for singlestep experiments with equally likely outcomes
- Assign probabilities to the outcomes of events and determine probabilities for events
- Identify complementary events and use the sum of probabilities to solve problems
- Describe events using language of ‘at least’, exclusive ‘or’ (A or B but not both), inclusive ‘or’ (A or B or both) and ‘and’. Represent events in two-way tables and Venn diagrams and solve related problems
- List all outcomes for two-step chance experiments, both with and without replacement using tree diagrams or arrays.
- Assign probabilities to outcomes and determine probabilities for events
- Calculate relative frequencies from given or collected data to estimate probabilities of events involving ‘and’ or ‘or’
- Investigate reports of surveys in digital media and elsewhere for information on how data were obtained to estimate population means and medians
- Describe the results of two- and threestep chance experiments, both with and without replacements, assign probabilities to outcomes and determine probabilities of events.
- Investigate the concept of independence Use the language of ‘if ….then, ‘given’, ‘of’, ‘knowing that’ to investigate conditional statements and identify common mistakes in interpreting such language
- Investigate reports of studies in digital media and elsewhere for information on their planning and implementation