# Chance

## Australian National Curriculum learning map

• Identify outcomes of familiar events involving chance and describe them using everyday language such as ‘will happen’, ‘won’t happen’ or ‘might happen’
• Identify practical activities and everyday events that involve chance.
• Describe outcomes as ‘likely’ or ‘unlikely’ and identify some events as ‘certain’ or ‘impossible’
• Conduct chance experiments, identify and describe possible outcomes and recognise variation in results
• Describe possible everyday events and order their chances of occurring
• Identify everyday events where one cannot happen if the other happens
• Identify events where the chance of one will not be affected by the occurrence of the other
• List outcomes of chance experiments involving equally likely outcomes and represent probabilities of those outcomes using fractions
• Recognise that probabilities range from 0 to 1
• Describe probabilities using fractions, decimals and percentages
• Conduct chance experiments with both small and large numbers of trials using appropriate digital technologies
• Compare observed frequencies across experiments with expected frequencies
• Construct sample spaces for singlestep experiments with equally likely outcomes
• Assign probabilities to the outcomes of events and determine probabilities for events
• Identify complementary events and use the sum of probabilities to solve problems
• Describe events using language of ‘at least’, exclusive ‘or’ (A or B but not both), inclusive ‘or’ (A or B or both) and ‘and’. Represent events in two-way tables and Venn diagrams and solve related problems
• List all outcomes for two-step chance experiments, both with and without replacement using tree diagrams or arrays.
• Assign probabilities to outcomes and determine probabilities for events
• Calculate relative frequencies from given or collected data to estimate probabilities of events involving ‘and’ or ‘or’
• Investigate reports of surveys in digital media and elsewhere for information on how data were obtained to estimate population means and medians
• Describe the results of two- and threestep chance experiments, both with and without replacements, assign probabilities to outcomes and determine probabilities of events.
• Investigate the concept of independence Use the language of ‘if ….then, ‘given’, ‘of’, ‘knowing that’ to investigate conditional statements and identify common mistakes in interpreting such language
• Investigate reports of studies in digital media and elsewhere for information on their planning and implementation